体积 7, 问题 1 (2016)


Simulation of the Runoff in a Short-Term Scale and Assessing the Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change in the Zarinerood Basin (As Part of the Orumyeh Lake Great Basin)

Mohammad Seyedielmabad

Snowmelt has a significant effect on rivers outflow in Western Iran. Occasionally, in some areas about 90% of runoff result from melting snow. Access to accurate and timely information for measuring the volume of available water resources is necessary. It is important to plan and design programs for drought-resistance and flood prevention as fundamental issues in Iran. The water balance (WB) model was used to estimate daily runoff produced by melting snow, without reliance to satellite images, from October to February (2005-2006) in the Zarinerood basin. This model uses available data and information in the basin to provide the possibility of estimating daily runoff in the short-term. For this purpose, the watershed was divided into three elevation zones and in each zone, an index station was determined. Using the water balance model, runoff was estimated from each station producing the outlet runoff in the basin. To calculate model accuracy, the correlation coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were estimated as 0.62 and 0.003, respectively. These results showed that the accuracy of the model to estimate daily runoff was acceptable. Therefore, the calibration of this model endorses its use in similar basins. It has been shown that increasing temperature has affected on snow-melt period as shifting it from spring and early summer to winter in North-west Iran. It results to increasing runoff rates in the snow-melt season and therefore this region encounters intensive drought and flood.


Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Purpose by Using Water Quality Index (WQI) in Muzaffarnagar and Shamli Districts, Uttar Pradesh, India

Gopal Krishan, Surjeet Singh, Kumar CP, Garg PK, Suman Gurjar, Ghosh NC and Anju Chaudhary

A Water Quality Index (WQI) numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value that is understandable and usable by the public. This information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. Muzaffarnagar and Shamli districts of Uttar Pradesh are situated in Ganga-Yamuna doab of fertile alluvium of Indo-gangetic basin where the demands for surface water and groundwater are growing with rapid increase in agricultural and industrial activities. In the present study, water quality index is worked out to assess the spatial variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and management of Muzaffarnagar and Shamli districts using WQI. Data of 104 groundwater samples covering the whole districts have been used. The Water Quality Index has been computed using five parameters viz., pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Chloride and Sulphate. The WQI results show that the overall water quality class is ‘good’ and water is acceptable for domestic use.


Relativity and Technology in the New Hydroelectric Energy

Luigi Antonio Pezone

With this article research, I refer especially to the fathers of the science in the era before the industrial era, used the only reasoning to find links between the laws of space, matter and nature. With industrialization were born the specializations and these ties have been lost the global reasoning of science. How modest designer, but above installer of systems, which has had the opportunity to range among the industrial, environmental and energy, I could not notice that there are huge gaps between a plant and another, even within the same systems, both in areas depurative, both in those energetic, both in management of hydraulic resources. The science of the past was universal while the modern that develops in laboratories has become partisan. The technology that did not exist was launched on the same street. He has made enormous progress and modern companies are super specialized in individual areas, but from an environmental perspective, there is no complete system in the world. I do not doubt the good faith of the experts, but I also believe that cannot do full environmental reasoning if not are put together technical and transversal scientific knowledge and do not set the global cycles that are simultaneously purifying, energy and management. This publication is a summary of some environmental patents, above all, related to water management and hydropower generation, different from the current. They are making a very difficult path to be understood, just because of the fact that none of the experts, public and private is accustomed to think globally, but entering into details, purification, energy and management. Unfortunately, this is the only way to realize the synergies that serve to arrive at a comprehensive environmental management that does not waste resources. Who has believed, for economic reasons, to neglect the global management of the environment, only focusing on energy production, more or less clean, to be sold on the international market, will be surprised and disappointed because the global management will produce energy clean tens of times more economic than the current ones. We just have to wait and see until the authorities, science of part and the economy, will pretend not to understand these inventions, which are available for all, especially for poorest and those looking for work.


Marine Environmental Protection: A Highly Efficient Method of Degradation of Heavy Oil Pollution on Coastal Beaches

MC Lin

Coastal oil pollution, especially occurring on coastal beach, is thorny issue when it comes to environmental restoration. Today, bioremediation is the current method used in treating beach oil pollution. Although it has undergone some improvements, this method still doesn't work very well. In this paper, a highly efficient procedure in bioremediation is studied. This method, using more varieties of microbes and water recirculation, may degrade heavy oil in a few days. Three sets are designed into this study. The method in Set 1 is a traditional degradation using a single microbe with only fertilizers and dispersant. The method in Set 2 is a highly efficient degradation process with more varieties of microbes, fertilizers, dispersant, fresh water recirculation and pumped-in air supplying. Set 3 is s control set which degrades heavy oil with the original microbe in beach sand only. Results of these experiments show that the process used in Set 2 will completely degrade heavy oil within 60 days. This is more efficient than by the traditional method as in Set 1, which takes more than 200 days.


Climate Change Impact on Design Storm and Performance of Urban Storm-Water Management System - A Case Study on West Central Mountain Drainage Area in Canada

Sadik Ahmed, Ioannis Tsanis

A number of future climate projections indicate a likelihood of increased magnitude and frequency of hydrological extremes for many regions around the world. The urban storm-water management infrastructures are designed to mitigate the effect of extreme hydrological events. Changes in extreme rainfall events will have a significant implication on the design of storm-water management infrastructures. This study assessed the potential impact of changed rainfall extreme on drainage systems in the West Central Mountain drainage area located in Southern Ontario, Canada. First, the design storms for the study area were calculated from observed rainfall data and the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) climate simulations based on SRES A2 Scenario. Frequency analysis was performed on the annual maximum time series data by using the best fitted distribution among twenty seven distributions. The Pearson chi-square test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used to test the goodness of fit of each distribution. The results show that L-moment Pareto distribution was selected the most often for data from six RCM+GCM pairs. Overall increase of storm depth in the future is highest when the distributions were identified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The design storm depths calculated from the observed and climate model simulated data were used as input into an existing PCSWMM model of the study area for flow simulation and hydraulic analysis for the storm-water management system, specifically storm sewer and detention pond. The results show an increase in design storm depths under projected climatic change scenarios that suggest an update of current standard for designing both the minor system and detention pond in the study area. The assessment results of storm water management infrastructures indicate that performance of the detention pond as well as the storm sewer network will deteriorate under future climate condition.


New Economic Policies: Instruments for Water Management in Lebanon

Amin Shaban

Social, economic and environmental aspects should be taken into consideration for IWRM implementation in Lebanon. This would be helpful to formulate policies required for improving water sector. Likewise many countries, Lebanon do not implement water policies on the formal level. This is critical since policies are initiative for legislation, strategic planning and operational management. Hence, water resources in Lebanon are threatened by population growth and climatic variability and imbalanced supply/demand. Thus, the interrelation between supplier and consumer should be harmonized since there is large amount of water is lost due non-uniform water supply and partitioning approaches, besides lack of awareness and absence of wise-use of water resources. Therefore, economic policies should be adopted in Lebanon and water pricing must be set to give incentives to user for efficient water use in their various applications. Thus, treating water as an economic good recognizes that water carries an opportunity cost. This paper presents the existing economic status of water in Lebanon in the absence of legal economic policies. It, therefore, extends new Economic Policies Instruments (EPIs) is required for better IWRM.


Zooplankton Diversity, Species Richness and their Distribution Pattern in Bhimtal Lake of Kumaun Region, (Uttarakhand)

Shikha Panwar and Malik DS

Bhimtal Lake situated in Uttarakhand, India, and has been devastated due to anthropogenic activities. In this study we examined the diversity and distribution pattern of zooplanktons in the Bhimtal Lake, along with evaluation of the relationships among different zooplankton groups and abiotic factors during the period September, 2013 to August, 2014. Sampling was done seasonally, during summer, winter and monsoon seasons, at three sites in Bhimtal lake. Sample analysis revealed the presence of 29 species of zooplankton including 16 species of Rotifers, 8 species of Cladocera and 5 species of Copepods. Rotifera group was the most dominant among all three groups. Positive co-relation was found between zooplankton growth with water temperature and pH while, there growth was adversely affected with increasing alkalinity, nitrates and dissolved oxygen. The diversity of Rotifers, Cladocera and Copepods were highest during summer, and was lowest during winter, while their density and biomass were found to be highest at the surface water during summer. It can be stated that the tropic nature of Bhimtal Lake may have been changed to mesotrophic conditions.


Event Based Flood Inundation Mapping Under the Impact of Climate Change: A Case Study in Lower Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka

Gouri De Silva, Weerakoonb SB, Srikantha Herath

The downstream low lying region of the Kelani River including the Colombo suburbs, experience severe inundation due to localized heavy rainfall events and high precipitation in the upper basin. Under the impact of climate change it is very likely that more frequent heavy rainfalls in tropics [1] will occur. Therefore it is extremely important to have a better understanding about future rainfall patterns and intensities in the basin and inundation extents of the low lying regions characterized by high population concentration and economic activities that form the suburbs of the commercial capital. This paper presents the extreme rainfalls occurrence potential and resulting flood inundation along the lower reach of Kelani River. Coarse grid atmospheric parameters provided by GCM models for A2 and B2 scenarios of IPCC [1] are downscaled to catchment scale by the application of Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Flood discharge and inundation along the Kelani River reach below Hanwella was analyzed by the application of two-dimensional flood simulation model (FLO-2D). Inflow to the model at Hanwella, is estimated by the HEC- HMS model under future extreme rainfall events. Areas vulnerable for inundation under the above climate change scenarios are presented.


Assessment of Hydrological Impacts of Mau Forest, Kenya

Ouko M. Chrisphine, Odhiambo A. Maryanne and Boitt K. Mark

Mau Forest Complex is the largest closed-canopy montane ecosystem in Eastern Africa that encompasses seven forest blocks namely Mau Narok, Maasai Mau, Eastern Mau, Western Mau, Southern Mau, South West Mau and Transmara regions and the main catchment area for 12 rivers. However, over the past years, it has undergone significant land use changes due to increased human population demanding land for settlement and subsistence agriculture. Previous studies carried out in Mau have always demonstrated the relationship between deforestation and rate of forest degradation, but the effects on water quality and the impact on tourism resulting from the flamingoes migration has not been addressed adequately. Using Landsat images for four different epochs that is 1984, 1994, 2003 and 2015 comparative analysis of landuse land-cover (LULC) changes was carried out. The study demonstrated that the size of forest cover in Mau have been changing from 1984 to present. This is due to deforestation and agricultural activities taking place within the forested areas of Mau.

The Study of using Wind Energy to Hydropower Designs with Pump

C Badaluta Minda

New hydropower with pump can be a continuous development within the national energy system. Their principle is to cheap energy consumption power P1 E1 produced at the base of the schedule task for pumping water from a reservoir situated at odds, in a lowered reservoir situated at height. While producing more energy expensive peak E2 to power P2 is achieved by whirling such volumes. The difference in cost between the basic energy absorbed by pumping the peak produced at whirling ensures profitability of these facilities. Regarding the current hydropower system nationwide to establish the existence of hydro-technical systems with pumping and gravitational systems this can be turned into ones with pumping. In analysing the conditions of work opportunity and search engine optimization of wind energy at the base of hydropower facilities with pumping system may be transformed-High Barzava. Limits are fixed to the unit cost of wind energy is competitive for its use as a primary source.


New Approach for the Analysis of Isotopic Composition in Precipitation Globally

BP Singh

Isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen of water in precipitation is important tool to analyze the water in hydrological cycle. A new method has been suggested by Singh [7] plotting slope versus intercept of Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) to find the original isotopic composition in precipitation as injected tracer globally. Singh [8-10] has applied these concepts to analyze the isotopic composition in precipitation in different catchment areas of river and different seasons, precipitation falling at different altitudes in a region or a place and across the continent. These studies are extended for the (a) study of changing intercept but keeping the same slope as attributed to changed conditions as the source of atmospheric moisture. The experimental data as available of two transect from Amazon to Altiplano in South America are analyzed. The results are presented assigning two components, one due to Rayleigh adiabatic condensation process rainfall and second recycled water vapour by evotranspiration. The details of the analysis are given and the results clearly indicate these two components, are discussed in detail. (b) Study of higher intercept due to Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL), Israel samples from various inputs on mountains, coastal area, caves and valley to ascertain the precipitation is from the same source. (c) Study of LMWL across the country (India) for four different regions to obtain the LMWL of the regions by the method of Singh [7] obtained the original isotopic composition of water in all the four regions thereby get the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL).


Modeling Jupiter's Synchrotron Emission from Relativistic Electron Trapped in Jovian Magnetosphere

Shubha Singh, A. K. Singh and R.P. Singh

The relativistic electron energy in few MeV range, trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere emit electromagnetic waves in wide radio frequency domain which escapes the generation region and propagates towards the Earth’s atmosphere. The flux density of the emission is a function of the electron distribution (spatial and angular), the energy spectrum of the electron, the magnetic field strength and configuration. The measured spectral power density of high energetic electrons and its distribution with frequency can be used to find out the distribution of relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere having the range LJ =3 Jovian radius. In present communication the variation of radiated power per electron with energy through the synchrotron radiation process have been shown and discussed. The simulated flux density is compared with corresponding recent emitted radio spectrum data available from Cassinni flyby. The investigation enables us to explain the mechanism and characteristic properties of Jovian magnetosphere.


Evidences of Spatiotemporal Climate Change and its Mitigation in Ethiopia

Abbadi Girmay Reda

The change detection at country level was unidirectional trend analysis between two time periods of 1946 and 2006. Temperature shows increasing trend but rainfall shows fluctuation. Point analysis of climate data at local level (1980-2010), Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia, one of the semi-arid areas, showed that minimum temperature for the months of October through January had an increasing trend while maximum temperature for the hot season (April- June) and annual rainfall had no significant trend and were inconsistent. Region-specific detailed and seasonal climate studies are needed and to be integrated with local context of agriculture, livelihoods, forecasts and development plans for effective Early Warning Systems to utilize climate potentials and minimize natural disasters. This study serves as a milestone for further detailed agroclimatic and sector based analysis of spatio-temporal climate change patterns, impact assessment and adaptation and mitigation strategies. Massive sustainable local community based natural resource management efforts have been undertaken and there had been lots of success stories in the last 25 years. SLM practices constitute key adaptation and mitigation measures by resulting in reduced soil erosion, improved water retention, and improved land productivity. Rainfall generally shows declining trend with exception to Northern Region for the period of 1946 to 2006. Moist areas of Western and South Western Ethiopia are showing negative trend of rainfall which indicates that their forest covers have been deteriorating through time. However, the drier Northern Ethiopia region area shows positive (upward) trends owing to massive environmental rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands into productive lands in the last 25 years. The public investment in Northern Ethiopia region on environmental rehabilitation has resulted in rehabilitated environment and contributed to reversing adverse effects of climate change. These local actions taken as adaptation and mitigation strategies against global warming should be encouraged, globally recognized, and rewarded.



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